The borders of the Russian imperial territories of Khiva, Bukhara and Kokand in the time period of 1902-1903.
Perhaps an even greater concern for nineteenth-century British India than threats to the Suez Canal route was the perceived continental ambition in Central Asia of Britain’s other great European rival: imperial Russia. The landlocked Herat proved much more difficult to control than the more southern maritime frontiers in the Indian Ocean. War, diplomatic intrigue, and political posturing with Russia over this region ensued through most of the nineteenth century.
Known as the ‘‘Great Game,’’ perhaps exemplified most famously in British author Rudyard Kipling’s novel Kim (1900), this century of conflict centered to a great extent on British efforts to unite and secure Afghanistan against rival Persian and Russian claims. Its first attempt came in the ...read more