American map of Korean forts on Ganghwa Island during the United States expedition to Korea, 1871. The maps depict forts, named by the U.S. navy warships which took part in their destruction in the Battle of Ganghwa.
The Army’s extensive amphibious and riverine experience in the Civil War was not codified into formal doctrine, although some institutional memory of these operations is likely to have survived. During the last decades of the 19th century, the few amphibious operations carried out by US forces were generally conducted by Navy landing teams of sailors and marines, exemplified by the seizure of forts along the Han River in Korea in June 1871 by a naval landing force. In the words of historian Brian McAllister Linn, these “punitive strikes, naval landings, amphibious raids, and other landing operations . . . were ad hoc incidents of military forces assisting the commerce-protecting gunboat diplomacy of the era ...read more